Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 9 million in the city and 16 million in the wider metropolitan area. Tehran is the largest city of Iran and the 2nd-largest city in Western Asia, and the 3rd-largest in the Middle East. It is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.
Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran’s territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Persian Wars, and to avoid the vying factions of the previously ruling Iranian dynasties. The capital has been moved several times throughout the history, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran.
The city was the seat of the Qajars and Pahlavis, the two last imperial dynasties of Iran. It is home to many historical collections, such as the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa’dabad, and Niavaran, as well as the country’s most important governmental buildings of the modern period.
Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, and Tehran has been a destination for the mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century.
The most famous landmarks of the city include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built during the Pahlavi period, and the Milad Tower, the world’s 17th tallest freestanding structure which was built in 2007. Tabiat Bridge, which was completed in 2014, is considered the third symbol of the city.
The majority of the people of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, and roughly 99% of the population understand and speak Persian; but there are also large populations of other Iranian ethnicities in the city such as Azerbaijanis, Armenians, Lurs, and Kurds who speak Persian as their second language.
Tehran is served by the Mehrabad and Khomeini international airports, a central railway station, the rapid transit rail system of the Tehran Metro, as well as a trolleybus and a BRT system, and has a huge network of highways. Location of Tehran makes both land travel and air travel easily accessible.
GETTING HERE AND GETTING AROUND IN TEHRAN
Tehran is one of the 10 largest cities in the world. There are many forms of transportation to use. The metropolis of Tehran enjoys a huge network of highways (280 km) and of interchanges’ ramps & loops (180km). In 2007 there were 130 kilometers of highways and 120 kilometers of ramps and loops under construction. The city has a wide line of buses and has experienced BRT lines from 2007 in from east side to west. There is a huge amount of Taxis and many Taxi agencies in Tehran. Many people prefer buses and taxis in the city which provide good transportation and are affordable to use.
In 2001 a metro system that had been in planning since the 1970s opened the first two of seven envisaged lines. Development of the Tehran metro system had been interrupted by the Islamic Revolution and the Iran-Iraq War. The metro is a clean and affordable means of transportation in Tehran. The Tehran Metro is a rapid transit system serving Tehran, the capital of Iran. The system consists of four operational metro lines (and a fifth commuter rail line), with construction begun on a further two lines in 2007.
The Tehran Metro carries more than 3 million passengers a day. In 2014, 815 million trips were made on Tehran Metro. As of 2015, the total system was 170 kilometers (110 mi) long, 127 kilometers (79 mi) of which it metro-grade rail. It is planned to have a length of 430 kilometers (270 mi) with 9 lines once all construction is complete by 2028. On all days of the week, the Metro service runs from approximately 05:30 to 23:00.
The line uses standard gauge and is partly underground. Ticket price is 5000 IRR for each journey (about USD 0.15), regardless of the distance traveled, but using prepaid tickets costs much less. Seniors may travel for free on the metro. On all Tehran metro trains the first, the second, and the last carriages are reserved for women who do not wish to ride with men in the same car. Women can still ride other cars freely.
Tehran also has a central train station with connecting services round the clock to various cities in the country. There are four bus terminals that also provide connections at low fares. These are the South, East, West, and Bei-haghi Park-Drive Terminals.
While the center of the city houses the government ministries and headquarters, the commercial centers are more located toward Valiasr Street, Taleghani Ave, and Beheshti Ave further north. Although administratively separate, Rey, Shemiran, and Karaj are often considered part of the larger Tehran metropolitan area.
Tehran is served by Mehrabad Airport, the old airport which doubles as a military base located in the western part of the city, and Imam Khomeini International Airport, 30 kilometres (19 miles) south, which handles flights from the Persian Gulf but which will eventually handle all international flights.
Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport, also known as Tehran-IKIA or IKIA, is the main international airport of Iran, located 30 kilometers (19 mi) southwest of the city of Tehran, near the localities of Robat-Karim and Eslamshahr, on a 13,500-hectare (135 km2) site. It was designed to replace Mehrabad International Airport, which is in the west of the city, now inside the city boundaries. The airport was originally designated as Ahmadabad but was later renamed to “Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport”. It is capable of handling wide-body aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and Airbus A380 super heavy aircraft.
The airport, operated by the Iranian Airports Holding Company, is the home base of Iran Air, Meraj Airlines, Mahan Air, Iran Aseman Airlines, Qeshm Airlines, Taban Air, and Zagros Airlines. As of August 2014, Imam Khomeini International Airport serves more than 40 airlines operating over 850 of weekly flights connecting Tehran to cities in over 30 countries and territories worldwide.
Tehran Mehrabad Airport is an airport that serves Tehran, Iran. It was the primary airport of Tehran in both international and domestic passenger traffic but has been replaced by the new Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport for most of its international traffic. Mehrabad however is still by far the busiest airport in Iran in terms of passenger traffic and aircraft movements, handling 13,617,094 passengers in 2014. It is capable of handling wide-body aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and Airbus A340-600. Besides, it is also being used for all the Air transports for the Heads of State and Government of Iran, which operates by Meraj Airlines in the VIP’s and CIP’s Terminal.
Travelling to Iran is easily accessible and almost all airlines fly regularly to Iran. The list of the airlines in operation that offer scheduled service to people travelling to Iran are as follows: Air France, Turkish Airlines, Lufthansa, Etihad Airways, Qatar Airways, Oman Air, Fly Dubai, Emirates, and Alitalia.
Tehran is a wonderful city and there are plenty of fun things to do in Tehran.
There are many cultural places to visit in Tehran including Golestan Palace, Niyavaran Palace Complex, Sa’dabad Palace Complex, Saheb Gharani-e Palace, Tabiat (Nature) Bridge, Bagh-e Ferdows, Tehran’s Bird Garden, Carpet Museum, Jewelry Museum, National Museum of Iran, and Milad Tower.
There are many modern shopping malls in Tehran such as Palladium, Kourosh Complex, Elahiyeh Modern Shopping Mall, Tiraje Shopping Mall, and Tandis Shopping Mall.
The Grand Bazaar is an old historical market in Tehran located at the Arg Square in Southern Tehran, it is split into several corridors over 10 km in length, each specializing in different types of goods and has several entrances, with the main being the entrance of Sabze Meydan.
Cafes and Restaurants
There are a lot of beautiful traditional and modern cafes and restaurants with amazing Iranian and international food. Nayeb, Alighapoo, Dizi, Daloon-e-Deraz, Gilac and Gilaneh are among the best traditional restaurants. There are also a lot of great modern cafes and restaurants such as Nayeb restaurant and Milad tower revolving restaurant.
Many famous parks are located in Tehran. Chitgar Park, Laleh Park, Jamshidiyeh Mountain Park, Honarmandan (Artists) Park, Ab-o-Atash (Fire and Water Park), Mellat Park, and Daneshju Park.
Sports such as mountain climbing, rock climbing, ski, bowling and bungee jumping are available in Tehran. Tehran is geographically located in the southern slopes of Alborz Mountains. In the north of Tehran there are some beautiful mountains to ascend, Tochal (~4000m), Kolakchal, etc. Also the local access of Tehran to Alborz Mountains is a brilliant advantage. You could access easily to Damavand (highest mountain of Iran, 5600m).Thehigh mountains near Tehran provide good days for Ski at Tochal Ski Complex, Shemshak and Dizin Ski complex.